Vol 8, No 2 (Sep, 2019)

Table of Contents


Brittany Hott & Beth Jones, Editors

We are pleased to share the January 2020 issue of the Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship. This issue would not have been possible without the effort of our entire JOSEA team. In the year of 2019, we had 198 manuscripts submitted for review. We are thankful that our editorial board continues to grow and that we have the privilege of receiving timely and thoughtful reviews from our knowledgeable and dedicated board members. This year has been an exciting year and we are eager to share some updates. Please join me in congratulating Dr. Kathleen Randolph, Assistant Professor of Special Education at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, and Dr. Marla Lohmann, Assistant Professor of Special Education Colorado Christian University who began their terms as Associate Editors this semester. We also welcome Ms. Hope Partin a graduate student in the Department of Psychology at the University of Oklahoma as our 2019-2020 editorial assistant.

This issue of JOSEA includes five articles on a variety of special education topics. Several articles report findings from empirical studies. Michael Mahoney, Assistant Professor of Special Education at California State University Fresno, presents a review of the use of evidence-based practices within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) in middle school and high school classrooms. Dr. Karin Fisher, Assistant Professor at Georgia Southern University, explored parent knowledge of the definition of FAPE in light of the Endrew vs. Douglas County School Board decision. Dr. Margaret Weiss and colleagues present the strengths and weaknesses of using eCoaching in teacher preparation.

Ms. Sarah Bolinger and colleagues from Ball State University surveyed both general education teacher’ and special education teachers about their knowledge of ADHD the effect on classroom management. Ms. Erin Zobell, Master of Arts candidate California State University Bakersfield, and Dr. Jiwon Hwang Director and Assistant Professor of Special Education Program, studied and surveyed paraprofessionals working in special education about their roles, training, and supervision. Mr. Brennan Chandler and Dr. Jessica Hagaman, Assistant Professor at the University of Nebraska, share results of their study exploring pre-service teachers’ fidelity of implementation while using the self-regulated strategy development model. Finally, Dr. Scheef and colleagues from University of Idaho and Washington State University studied impact of an inclusive post-secondary course on pre-service teachers.

We are hopeful that the issue is beneficial to the JOSEA readership. We are actively seeking manuscripts for our spring and summer 2020 issues. JOSEA continues to actively seek empirical research articles reporting results of quantitative, qualitative, single case, and mixed methods studies. Empirical reviews using meta-analytic and research synthesis methods are also encouraged. JOSEA also publishes practitioner publications. Please consider submitting your work and volunteering to serve on our review board. Manuscripts can be submitted to joseaeditor@gmail.com


Teaching Addition to Students with Moderate Disabilities Using Video Prompting

Scott A. Dueker, Ball State University
Helen I. Cannella-Malone, The Ohio State University
Abstract: Academic performance for students with moderate to severe disabilities falls far behind their typically developing peers and puts them at risk for continued dependence after school ends. Video prompting is an evidence-based practice that has been used to teach various non-academic skills; however, few studies have focused on using video prompting to teach academic skills other than reading. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across students design to evaluate the use of video prompting to teach single- and double-digit addition to three students with moderate disabilities. Results indicated that all three students improved their accurate completion of addition problems immediately upon introduction of the video prompting intervention. In addition, all three students completely faded the use of the videos and generalized completing addition problems to another setting. Social validity of the intervention was high across all participants, their families, and their teacher.

Keywords: academics, addition, moderate disabilities, video prompting

A Virtual Assistant on Campus for Blind and Low Vision Students

Amanda Lannan, University of Central Florida Abstract: "I want to make the most of my college experience…pass the courses I need to get into law school, make new friends, and travel. Maybe study abroad." These are the sentiments of one undergraduate student. These goals are not so different from those of hundreds of students attending college, yet, the mere fact she is blind creates a completely different perspective. This exploratory study seeks to learn how undergraduate students who are blind or have low vision (BLV), experience Aira, an augmented reality application, as a visual interpreter, in post-secondary settings. Semi-structured interviews illuminated three major themes: (a) accessibility impacts productivity, (b) incidental learning affects social interactions, and (c) sense of self. Theoretical conclusions are made on how Aira positively contributes to a complete college experience for students who are BLV, as outlined in the Seven Vectors of Identification Development (Chickering & Reisser, 1993).

Keywords: blind, low vision, augmented reality, post-secondary, college

Utilizing a Flipped Learning Model to Support Special Educators’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

Tara L. Kaczorowski, Allison M. Kroesch, Mandy White, & Brianna Lanning, Illinois State University Abstract: Flipped learning is a popular pedagogical approach in K-12 and in higher education (Graziano, 2017), however minimal research exists on the effectiveness of flipped learning in special education teacher preparation courses. Special education teacher candidates enrolled in five sections of a special education math methods course engaged with interactive, flipped “learning lessons” prior to class. During class, they participated in extension activities and lesson planning. The researchers utilized mixed methods to evaluate the impact of performance on and engagement with these learning lessons and found positive predictive relationships with student achievement on all individual summative assignments. Nearly all students agreed flipped learning was useful in helping them meet the course outcomes. Most students specifically credited the flipped lessons as a facilitator of their learning because they allowed them to interact with the content at their own pace and to utilize class time for more meaningful review and extension activities with the instructor's support.

Keywords: engagement; flipped learning; mathematics; multimedia learnin; Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL); special education teacher preparation

Using Assistive Technology Tools to Support Learning in the Inclusive Preschool Classroom

Marla J. Lohmann, Colorado Christian University
Katrina A. Hovey, Western Oregon University
Ariane N. Gauvreau, University of Washington
Johanna P. Higgins, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Abstract: For over a century, early childhood experts have discussed the importance of play for young children’s growth and development. Play is critical for the development of young children as it increases learning (Barton, 2015), 04 Full Text supports young children in gaining social and communication skills (Dennis & Stockall, 2015), and leads to social awareness and empathy skills (Brown, 2009). However, for young children with disabilities, accessing play and social interactions can prove to be challenging (Fallon & MacCobb, 2013). In order to support preschoolers with disabilities in learning through play, the authors recommend the use of assistive technologies (AT) for (a) communication, (b) mobility, and (c) independence. This article presents information about specific assistive technology devices and supports in each of these three areas.

Keywords: assistive technology, early childhood, inclusion, play, preschool

Using Apple Watch to Increase Behavior Specific Praise and Promote a Positive Learning Environment

Andrew M. Markelz, Ball State University
Benjamin S. Riden, University of Minnesota Duluth
Abstract: Effective classroom management is pivotal in special education teachers’ successful interactions with students who frequently engage in inappropriate and undesirable behaviors. One evidence-based strategy to promote positive social and academic outcomes is behavior specific praise (BSP). Yet, regardless of the evidential benefits of BSP, teachers continue to use low rates of praise because frequent student disruptions and general off-task behaviors reinforce teachers to reprimand. Apple Watch is at the forefront of a growing wearable industry and is increasingly common on special education teachers’ wrists. With the assistance of a publicly available application (app), the Apple Watch easily becomes a tactile prompting device to vibrate on an interval schedule and remind teachers to deliver BSP. In this scenario situation, we examine how Apple Watch can serve as a tool to practice effective classroom management and foster a positive learning environment.

Keywords: Apple Watch, behavior specific praise, classroom management, tactile prompting, technology

Supporting Student Knowledge Using Formative Assessment and Universal Design for Learning Expression

Lisa A. Finnegan, Florida Atlantic University
Katie M. Miller, Florida Atlantic University
Kathleen M. Randolph, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Kristina D. Bielskus-Barone, Florida Atlantic University
Abstract: This article demonstrates an approach for teachers to use outcomes from activities using the universal design for learning expression principle to evaluate student knowledge in content areas. Based on the student’s level of explanation using a variety of expression methods, teachers can determine whether students need additional support for re-teaching a concept or whether students are ready for additional practice or challenge. Various levels of technology can be used for formatively assessing student understanding, from no technology (e.g., paper and pencil) to mid- or hightechnology tools found in most classrooms, including computers and tablets.

Keywords: content area instruction, expression, formative assessment, standards-based outcome, technology, Universal Design for Learning

Infusing Technology throughout Teacher Preparation Programs to Support Preservice Teacher Development

Aftynne E. Cheek, Appalachian State University
Whitney A. Idol, Radford University
Jennie L. Jones, University of North Georgia
Kara B. Holden
Abstract: Teacher preparation programs must be systematic in the way they teach content and pedagogy while providing preservice teachers the tools they need to both be successful and want to stay in the field. Reports such as the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE, 2010) Blue Ribbon Panel report call for teacher preparation programs to use technology to support preservice teacher development of best practice. However, research indicates that there is a disconnect between what is expected of preservice teachers and the way they are taught, especially in the area of technology (Barak, 2017). In an effort to guide teacher preparation programs in their efforts, the authors use the components of the Joyce and Showers (1980) model of professional development (i.e., study of theory and best practice, observation of best practice, one-on-one coaching, and group coaching) to create a guiding framework of how teacher preparation programs can systematically infuse technology throughout their programs to support preservice teachers’ knowledge and skill acquisition in early, mid, and late candidacy. Examples of technology 07 Full Text and supporting research are provided and aligned with Joyce and Showers’ (1980) model.

Keywords: teacher preparation, technology, preservice teachers

Using iCoaching to support teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices

Kathleen M. Randolph, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mary Lou Duffy, Florida Atlantic University
Abstract: Coaching in the school setting typically follows a teacher observation by an administrator or coach. Feedback is often delayed and does not allow for immediate error correction. Traditional professional development in schools is often a one-day passive receipt of content or strategies, with no time to practice, implement, or follow-up on the strategy to ensure implementation with fidelity. Combining strategies learned in professional development with iCoaching provides teachers with support to implement evidence-based strategies in their own classrooms with fidelity, and bridges the gap between professional development and implementation. This article discusses how to use iCoaching to support strategy implementation for in-service teachers.

Keywords: evidence-based practices, iCoaching, teacher coaching

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