Vol 9, No 1 (Jan, 2020)

Table of Contents

Editorial


January 2020 Editorial Brittany Hott & Beth Jones, Editors

We are pleased to share the January 2020 issue of the Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship. This issue would not have been possible without the effort of our entire JOSEA team. In the year of 2019, we had 198 manuscripts submitted for review. We are thankful that our editorial board continues to grow and that we have the privilege of receiving timely and thoughtful reviews from our knowledgeable and dedicated board members. This year has been an exciting year and we are eager to share some updates. Please join me in congratulating Dr. Kathleen Randolph, Assistant Professor of Special Education at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, and Dr. Marla Lohmann, Assistant Professor of Special Education Colorado Christian University who began their terms as Associate Editors this semester. We also welcome Ms. Hope Partin a graduate student in the Department of Psychology at the University of Oklahoma as our 2019-2020 editorial assistant.

This issue of JOSEA includes five articles on a variety of special education topics. Several articles report findings from empirical studies. Michael Mahoney, Assistant Professor of Special Education at California State University Fresno, presents a review of the use of evidence-based practices within MultiTiered Systems of Support (MTSS) in middle school and high school classrooms. Dr. Karin Fisher, Assistant Professor at Georgia Southern University, explored parent knowledge of the definition of FAPE in light of the Endrew vs. Douglas County School Board decision. Dr. Margaret Weiss and colleagues present the strengths and weaknesses of using eCoaching in teacher preparation.

Ms. Sarah Bolinger and colleagues from Ball State University surveyed both general education teacher’ and special education teachers about their knowledge of ADHD the effect on classroom management. Ms. Erin Zobell, Master of Arts candidate California State University Bakersfield, and Dr. Jiwon Hwang Director and Assistant Professor of Special Education Program, studied and surveyed paraprofessionals working in special education about their roles, training, and supervision. Mr. Brennan Chandler and Dr. Jessica Hagaman, Assistant Professor at the University of Nebraska, share results of their study exploring pre-service teachers’ fidelity of implementation while using the self-regulated strategy development model. Finally, Dr. Scheef and colleagues from University of Idaho and Washington State University studied impact of an inclusive post-secondary course on pre-service teachers.

We are hopeful that the issue is beneficial to the JOSEA readership. We are actively seeking manuscripts for our spring and summer 2020 issues. JOSEA continues to actively seek empirical research articles reporting results of quantitative, qualitative, single case, and mixed methods studies. Empirical reviews using meta-analytic and research synthesis methods are also encouraged. JOSEA also publishes practitioner publications. Please consider submitting your work and volunteering to serve on our review board. Manuscripts can be submitted to joseaeditor@gmail.com

Articles


Implementing Evidence-Based Practices within Multi-tiered Systems of Support to Promote Inclusive Secondary Classroom Settings

Michael Mahoney, Ph.D., California State University, Fresno
Abstract: Research suggests that evidence-based practices (EBPs) implemented in secondary school settings will support the academic achievement of students with specific learning needs (Scruggs, Mastropieri, Berkeley, & Graetz, 2010). In order to effectively promote the use of EBPs in general education classroom settings, secondary schools are currently adopting multi-tiered systems of supports (MTSS) such as Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and Response to Intervention models (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006; Sugai & Horner, 2006). However, secondary teachers’ may have limited knowledge of EBPs and adequate training in the implementation of EBPs in general education classroom settings (Kutash, Duchnowski, & Lynn, 2009; Stormont, Reinke, & Herman, 2011). The purpose of this article is to describe the process of implementing EBPs within secondary MTSS models of inclusion.

Keywords: secondary, evidence-based practices, multi-tiered systems of support, implementation, coaching, performance feedback

Parent knowledge of the definition of FAPE in light of the Endrew vs. Douglas County School Board decision

Karin M. Fisher, PhD, Georgia Southern University
Cassandra B. Willis, PhD, Virginia Commonwealth University
Barbara E. Ransom, J.D., Lesley University

Abstract: In 2017, the Supreme Court of the United States redefined Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for students with disabilities (SWD) in Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District. The Court’s new standard for FAPE was more demanding than previous rulings. Parents of SWD are expected to participate in the special education program process and a more robust Individualized Education Program (IEP) should be implemented to ensure sufficient student progress. However, it is unknown how much parents know about the Endrew F. Case and what, if any, impact the case had on IEP meetings since the ruling. To determine knowledge and impact of the case, a national survey was distributed through social media and listservs to parents of SWD. Over 100 participants from across the United States (U.S.) responded to the anonymous survey. Demographic data analysis indicated most participants were highly educated, wealthy, white women. Using an exploratory mixed methods approach, the results of the research suggested most parents, specifically upper-class women, have little knowledge about Endrew F., and have not seen changes in their child’s IEP. Respondents indicated a desire for more information about Endrew F., FAPE, and negotiating for their child. Implications for parents of SWD, advocacy organizations, and schools are discussed along with implications of the unique demographics of the participants.

Keywords: Endrew, Supreme Court, IEPs, Students with Disabilities, Parents, Advocacy

A Case Study of the Development of an eCoach

Margaret P. Weiss
Kelley S. Regan
Holly D. Glaser

Abstract: Internship is a critical feature of teacher preparation programs and can be one of the most influential experiences for teacher candidates. New technologies, such as eCoaching, demonstrate promising results in providing richer experiences to teacher candidates during internship. eCoaching allows university supervisors to provide real-time feedback on instruction and has proven effective at improving teacher change. However, eCoaching is different from traditional university supervision. In this case study, we describe the evolution of a traditional university supervisor using eCoaching for the first time and the support she needs to be effective. Implications are discussed.

Keywords: internship, bug-in-ear coaching, coaching, supervision, technology, ecoaching

Teacher Knowledge of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Classroom Management

Sarah J. Bolinger, Ball State University
Dr. Winnie Mucherah, Ball State University
Dr. Andrew M. Markelz, Ball State University

Abstract: There is limited research on teacher knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and classroom management; however, research suggests that teacher knowledge of ADHD influences teaching behaviors. This study investigates general education teachers’ and special education teachers’ knowledge of ADHD and the interaction with classroom management. In this study, 17 teachers responded to surveys about knowledge of ADHD and classroom management. Teachers scored an average of 61% on the knowledge of ADHD questionnaire. Contrary to the hypothesis, teacher knowledge of ADHD was not significantly related to classroom management. The relationship between knowledge of ADHD and classroom management needs further examination to determine if the two constructs are significantly related.

Keywords: ADHD, classroom management, general education, special education

An Examination of the Current Status of Paraprofessionals through their Lens: Role, Training, and Supervision

Erin Zobell, M.A.,California State University, Bakersfield
Jiwon Hwang, Ph.D., California State University, Bakersfield

Abstract: Revisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997 allowed for districts to hire teachers’ aides to assist in the educational process. These teachers’ aides, known as paraprofessionals or paraeducators, have increased in number since 1997 and now play an important role in helping students with disabilities. The purpose of the current study is to diagnose the current situation of paraprofessionals in special education within the four key aspects of appropriate role, inappropriate role, training, and supervision. A total of 47 paraprofessionals participated in the survey. Using the paraprofessionals’ perspectives on what the challenges and demanding areas were, we aim to establish a basis for providing teachers and school administrators guidelines to better support paraprofessionals who work with students with disabilities. Future research and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: paraprofessionals, roles, responsibilities, training, supervision

Pre-service teacher implementation of strategy instruction: Effects on the comprehension of middle school students

Brennan Chandler, The University of Nebraska
Jessica Hagaman, The University of Nebraska

Abstract: Recent legislation related to dyslexia has increased the focus on how reading is being taught in schools and how teachers are prepared to teach reading at the pre-service level. One promising teaching approach to supporting students with reading difficulties is the self- regulated strategy development (SRSD) model. However, there is limited research regarding whether the model can be implemented by pre-service teachers while still remaining effective. This study investigated the effects and fidelity of implementation of pre-service teacher implemented SRSD on the reading comprehension of middle school students identified as struggling in reading. A multiple baseline design across participants was used. Two undergraduate, pre-service teachers provided instruction. Participants were seven middle school students that demonstrated reading comprehension deficits. All instruction was provided in pairs or small groups. Results indicate that pre-service teachers can adhere to SRSD components and have a positive effect on students’ reading comprehension when implementing SRSD. Ideas for future research and implications are discussed.

Keywords: Pre-service teachers, strategy instruction, reading comprehension

The Impact of an Inclusive Post-Secondary Course on Pre-Service Teachers

Andrew R. Scheef, Ph.D., University of Idaho
Bishal Thapa, University of Idaho
Ellie Lerum, University of Idaho
Marcus I. Poppen, Washington State University

Abstract: Opportunities for inclusive postsecondary education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities are becoming increasingly common at institutions of higher education in the United States. Although inclusive postsecondary opportunities benefit the entire campus, this may be especially true for students enrolled in teacher education programs. This research used qualitative methods to better understand how participation in an inclusive postsecondary course impacts pre-service teachers. Four primary themes emerged from the data, including (a) Self-Efficacy in Teaching, (b) Comfort with People with Disabilities, (c) Inclusion, and (d) Acceptance. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

Keywords: inclusive postsecondary education, intellectual and developmental disabilities, teacher education

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